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  • 29 juin 2018 - 08:00
  • VishaI Arora, RNS/Protestinter 6889 signes
ProtestInter

Le Taj Mahal vandalisé par des hindous nationalistes

Le Taj Mahal https://flic.kr/p/kz14aHDes nationalistes hindous ont détérioré le Taj Mahal à Agra, in Inde, en protestation contre les musulmans. Ces derniers sont la cible de multiples violences.

Photo: CC (by-nc-nd) Daniel Mennerich

Par VishaI Arora, New Dehli, RNS/Protestinter

Les groupes nationalistes hindous commettent des attaques violentes contre les musulmans et leurs biens depuis des décennies, en Inde. Aujourd'hui, un groupe d'hindous nationalistes vise le Taj Mahal, le monument connu partout dans le monde, érigé par un empereur musulman au XVIIe siècle.

Le 10 juin, environ 25 membres du Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP), ou littéralement le Conseil hindou mondial, ont arraché une barrière d'accès en acier de 3 mètres sur 3,5 mètres qui avait été installée pour la collecte de billets à l'entrée du Taj Mahal, situé dans la ville d'Agra au nord de l'Inde. Le mausolée blanc-ivoire a été construit par l'empereur Shah Jahan pour héberger la tombe de sa femme préférée, Mumtaz Mahal.

«Cette barrière bloquait le chemin vers le temple, vieux de 400 ans, du dieu hindou Shiva», explique le responsable du VHP, Ravi Dubey, un des vandales. Le Service archéologique d'Inde (SAI) qui gère le Taj Mahal affirme qu'il y a un autre chemin pour accéder au temple. Ravi Dubey souligne que le SAI a bloqué les activités hindoues dans les alentours tout en permettant aux musulmans d'offrir des namaz, ou prières, à l'intérieur du complexe.

Tandis que la police confirme que la barrière a été arrachée et jetée 45 mètres plus loin, Ravi Dubey considère que c'était un «incident mineur». Le VHP est associé au  parti nationaliste hindou Bharatiya Janata (BJP) et a récemment été décrit comme une  «organisation activiste religieuse» dans le World Factbook de la CIA, sous la rubrique «groupes de pression politique» en Inde. La police a porté plainte contre Ravi Dubey et ses associés, mais personne n'a été arrêté, confirme au téléphone le surintendant en chef de la police d'Agra, Amit Pathak.

Des millions de touristes

Le Taj Mahal et ses monuments attirent des millions de touristes étrangers et indiens. Il génère en moyenne 4 millions de dollars de revenu chaque année pour le gouvernement, explique Apoorvanand Jha, enseignant d’hindi à l'Université de Delhi et particulièrement remonté par rapport aux attaques contre les musulmans. Il pense que le VHP n'oserait pas causer de réels dégâts à la structure principale, de peur de voir baisser les revenus.

D'après Apoorvanand Jha, les nationalistes hindous voient les monuments musulmans comme une «entrave à la gloire hindoue». Les nationalistes hindous affirment que ce sont les gouverneurs islamiques qui ont détruit les sites sacrés hindous pour les convertir en monuments musulmans. Du XVIe au XIXe siècle, les Moghols, qui étaient musulmans, gouvernaient une grande partie de ce qui est l'Inde actuelle. Les monuments construits par les Moghols sont devenus les principales attractions touristiques en Inde, explique Apoorvanand Jha. Plusieurs responsables du BJP ont récemment revendiqué que le Taj Mahal était un temple hindou converti plus tard en site musulman par les gouverneurs moghols.

En juin 2017, Yogi Adityanath, ministre principal de l'état d’Uttar Pradesh où se trouve le Taj Mahal, a expliqué aux médias que son gouvernement distribuait des textes sacrés hindous aux dignitaires étrangers et non pas des miniatures du Taj Mahal comme l'ont fait ses prédécesseurs. Le mausolée ne reflète pas la culture indienne, précise Yogi Adityahath, membre du BJP. En octobre dernier, le Département du tourisme d'Uttar Pradesh a publié une brochure faisant la liste des temples hindous les plus touristiques. Il y a exclu le Taj Mahal, engendrant des critiques.

Un autre législateur du BJP, Vinay Katiyar, prétend que le Taj Mahal était à l'origine un temple dédié à Shiva. «De l'extérieur, l'édifice ressemble à un temple», affirme-t-il. Et en 2014, Laxmikant Bajpai, alors président du BJP pour l'Uttar Pradesh, affirmait que le Taj Mahal faisait partie d'un palais appartenant à un roi hindou, Jai Singh.

Une explosion de la violence

Les sentiments et la violence anti-musulmans ont augmenté à travers toute l'Inde depuis que le BJP a remporté l'élection générale de 2014. IndiaSpend, un portail qui recense les crimes de haine, constate que depuis 2014, plus d'une dizaine de musulmans ont été lynchés par des groupes nationalistes hindous, accusés d'avoir mangé du boeuf ou tué des vaches. Beaucoup d'hindous considèrent que les vaches sont sacrées.

Au mois de juin 2018, un groupe d'hommes a vandalisé une mosquée et battu des fidèles musulmans sans raison, dans l'Haryana. Quelques jours plus tard, au moins cinq hommes dans la région de Ratu dans l'est du Jharkhand ont forcé un religieux musulman à se prosterner devant des dieux hindous et l'ont attaqué.

Des hommes musulmans ont été tués, accusés de «love jihad» (jihad d'amour), c'est-à-dire de séduire des femmes non-musulmanes afin de les convertir à l'islam. En décembre 2017, un ouvrier musulman a été brûlé vif au Rajasthan. Le suspect qui a été arrêté prétendait que la victime était un «love jihadiste».

«En Inde, on considérait déjà les musulmans comme arriérés et maintenant leur existence est menacée», affirme Ovais Sultan Khan, administrateur d’Act now for harmony and democracy (ANHAD) (agir aujourd'hui pour l'harmonie et la démocratie), une organisation indienne pour les droits de l'homme.

Le niveau de peur, de violence et d'intimidation chez les musulmans en Inde est «sans précédent» depuis la scission entre l'Inde et le Pakistan en 1947, explique Ovais Sultan Khan, tout en précisant que même «l'ancien vice-président Mohammad Hamid Ansari, un musulman, n'est pas en sécurité».

La montée du BJP

Shashi Tharoor, législateur du parti du Congrès national indien et ancien sous-secrétaire général des Nations Unies, attribue la violence anti-musulmans à «la montée du BJP hindou». «Le Taj Mahal n'est que la dernière des victimes d'une campagne politique dans l'histoire de l'Inde qui cherche à réinventer le concept même de l'Inde», écrit Shashi Tharoor dans «Pourquoi je suis un hindou». «Pendant sept décennies après l'indépendance, l'indianité reposait sur la foi, l'ascension du BJP hindou a entraîné des tentatives de redéfinition du pays en tant que nation hindoue longtemps subjuguée par les étrangers».

Le 15 août, le Premier ministre Narendra Modi du BJP prononcera un discours, retransmis dans tout le pays, pour le jour de l'Indépendance. On s'attend à ce qu'il préside la cérémonie, comme le veut la tradition depuis 1947, au Fort Rouge à Delhi, un autre monument érigé par l'empereur moghol Jahan.

 

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