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  • 13 juin 2018 - 08:30
  • Joël Burri 4005 signes
Politique

La Loi sur la laïcité de Genève accusée de porter atteinte aux libertés individuelles

Une girouette portant les couleurs genevoises au sommet de la tour sud de la cathédrale Saint-Pierre

Adoptée au Grand Conseil en mars passé, la loi genevoise sur la laïcité est attaquée par un référendum qui serait sur le point d’aboutir. Plusieurs de ses articles font par ailleurs l’objet de recours auprès de la Cour constitutionnelle, dont un du réseau évangélique de Genève.

Photo: Une girouette portant les couleurs genevoises au sommet de la tour sud de la cathédrale Saint-Pierre

Par Joël Burri

«Il ne fait aucun doute que le référendum contre la Loi sur la laïcité va aboutir», affirme le député genevois Pierre Vanek (Ensemble à Gauche/SolidaritéS). «Mais je ne veux pas donner de chiffres pour ne pas décourager les derniers efforts de récolte de signatures.» Pour que les Genevois aient à se prononcer sur cette nouvelle législation, les référendaires doivent déposer jusqu’au mercredi 20 juin 5227 signatures valables. Lundi, le réseau évangélique de Genève (REG) a fait savoir qu’il déposait un recours auprès de la Cour constitutionnelle contre plusieurs articles de la loi. Une procédure déjà annoncée par les Verts et qui est suspendue jusqu’au résultat du référendum.

«Nous estimons qu’il y a de très bonnes choses dans cette loi. Qu’elle apporte de véritables avancées. Par exemple, sur l’accès à l’aumônerie pour les différentes communautés religieuses. C’est pour cette raison que nous ne soutenons pas le référendum», explique Michael Mutzner, responsable média du Réseau évangélique suisse. «Mais sur certains points, la loi va trop loin. Par exemple, ce n’est pas parce qu’un fonctionnaire est musulman ou qu’il porte une croix huguenote qu’il va se comporter différemment avec des usagers. C’est un très mauvais message que l’on donne quant à la place du religieux dans la société.» Même question pour les membres de partis politiques chrétiens confrontés à l’obligation de neutralité pour les élus. Quant à l’interdiction des activités cultuelles, également prévue par la loi, elle risque de poser de nombreux problèmes d’application. «Un baptême au bord du lac, pourrait-il faire partie des exceptions autorisées», s’interroge Michael Mutzner. «Les limitations des libertés religieuses doivent être proportionnées», rappelle-t-il. La liberté religieuse est, en effet, protégée tant par la Constitution suisse que par la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme. «Par notre recours, nous voulons nous assurer que la Loi sur la laïcité est conforme au droit supérieur avant même qu’un cas concret se présente», précise le porte-parole.

Sur le fond, les revendications du REG ne divergent que peu de celles des quatre comités référendaires pour qui la neutralité religieuse dans les parlements est jugée discriminatoire, en particulier envers les femmes voilées; le concept de salarié «au contact du public» est trop flou et donnera lieu à des applications abusives; et l’interdiction des activités cultuelle dans l’espace public représente une privation disproportionnée d’un droit fondamental. «Dans la Bible, il est dit “que votre oui soit oui et que votre non soit non.” Ce n’est pas vraiment ce que font les évangéliques en ne soutenant pas le référendum, alors qu’ils en dénoncent des points assez fondamentaux», rigole Pierre Vanek. «C’est une question de perception des choses. Ils ont peur qu’en refusant la loi, ils donnent l’impression de la rejeter complètement. Pourtant lorsqu’une loi est rejetée on ne repart pas de zéro.»

Pierre Vanek se dit toutefois «heureux d’entendre une voix chrétienne», parmi les opposants à la loi. Une prise de position qui évite que le débat ne se focalise sur la question du port du voile par des élues au grand conseil ou dans des conseils municipaux. Les Églises protestante, catholique romaine et catholique chrétienne de Genève ont, quant à elles, exprimé dans un communiqué commun leurs regrets quant à différents points de la loi, mais ont conclu que: «tout bien considéré, ces attentions ne vont pas jusqu’à remettre en cause notre soutien global à la loi adoptée par le Grand Conseil.» Une prise de position confirmée après l’annonce par le REG de son recours.

Et si référendum aboutit à ce que les Genevois doivent s’exprimer dans les urnes, quelles serait le message du REG? «Nous ne sommes pas un parti politique, et à ce titre nous sommes très prudents avec les consignes de vote. Mais nous nous efforcerions d’expliquer les enjeux», explique Michael Mutzner.

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