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  • 06 juin 2018 - 08:10
  • laurence villoz 3082 signes
Théologie

Seuls quatre versets s’attaquent à l’homosexualité dans le Nouveau Testament

Eraste et Eromene échangent un baiser https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kiss_Briseis_Painter_Louvre_G278_n3.jpgL’Église protestante de Genève devra se prononcer sur la place des couples de même sexe, cet automne. Pour aborder cette question, un colloque a réuni nombre de spécialistes à l’Université de Genève, fin mai.

Photo: Éraste et Éromène échangent un baiser, médaillon d'une coupe du Peintre de Briséis LDD

Par Laurence Villoz

«Quatre versets! C’est le nombre total de passages habituellement versés par les exégètes au dossier de l’homosexualité dans le Nouveau Testament», lâche Simon Butticaz, spécialiste en sciences bibliques faisant référence à Romains 1, 26-27, 1 Corinthiens 6,9 et 1 Timothée 1,10, des textes attribués à Paul. «Des versets dont la complexité rhétorique, l’ambiguïté sémantique et le caractère culturellement situé interdisent toute application hâtive ou immédiate dans les débats contemporains, en Église et dans la société notamment», ajoute le professeur de Nouveau Testament lors d’un colloque sur la place des couples de même sexe dans les Églises qui s’est tenu les 28 et 29 mai dernier, à l’Université de Genève.

«L’Église protestante de Genève (EPG) devra se prononcer sur cette question qui divise beaucoup les Églises, en automne prochain. Nous avons organisé ce colloque pour mettre à plat les arguments de façon sereine et neutre», explique François Dermange, professeur d’éthique à la Faculté de théologie de l’Université de Genève et coorganisateur de la rencontre dans le cadre de l’Institut romand de systématique et d’éthique (IRSE), en collaboration avec la Fédération des Églises protestantes de Suisse (FEPS).

Pendant deux jours, une dizaine de spécialistes se sont emparés de la question des couples de même sexe sous différentes perspectives: biblique, protestante, catholique ainsi qu’anglo-saxonne. «Nous nous sommes penchés sur les arguments culturels, contextuels et théologiques, en observant les points de vue de personnes proches géographiquement, mais éloignées théologiquement et inversement», ajoute le professeur d’éthique. Parmi les intervenants, Simon Butticaz et Andreas Dettwiler également professeur en sciences bibliques, ont travaillé sur la question de l’homosexualité dans le Nouveau Testament.

Une distance critique

«Le thème de l’homosexualité n’avait pas aux origines du christianisme l’importance et le statut qu’il a pris dans les débats contemporains», insiste Simon Butticaz. Force est de constater le nombre extrêmement faible de versets qui abordent ce thème: quatre sur les 8000 du Nouveau Testament, soit 0,05%. Que disent ces quatre passages? Ils semblent dénoncer les pratiques homosexuelles. Mais l’exégèse des deux spécialistes montre qu’ils ne peuvent en aucun cas être compris littéralement. Le contexte historique, les pratiques sexuelles à l’époque gréco-romaine du Ier siècle, l’ambiguïté sémantique des termes utilisés et la situation dans laquelle Paul écrit ses lettres pèsent lourd dans l’interprétation de ces versets.

«Le dossier est extrêmement maigre. On ne parle pas de la même chose quand on aborde la sexualité aujourd’hui ou dans le Nouveau Testament», résume François Dermange. De son coté, Simon Butticaz pointe quatre prérequis essentiels pour aborder la question de la place des couples de même sexe en Église: une approche critique de la sexualité et de l’homosexualité dans les cultures de l’Antiquité, une analyse de la situation actuelle à travers le prisme des sciences humaines et sociales, une approche de l’Évangile comme discours symbolico-théologique sur Dieu, le monde et l’humain et finalement une herméneutique à la fois empathique et critique du monde contemporain et des acteurs qui le composent. Une boîte à outils à disposition du Consistoire de l’EPG qui se plongera dans ce dossier à l’automne.

 

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