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  • 15 mai 2018 - 17:30
  • Aline Jaccottet 3735 signes
ProtestInter

L’infinie «Nakba» des réfugiés palestiniens

Mohamed Ali Hamdan Zboun et la clé de sa maisonEn Cisjordanie, la colère des Palestiniens après les violences à Gaza s’est mêlée à la douleur des commémorations de la Nakba (catastrophe), leur expulsion à la création de l’État d’Israël en 1948. Septante ans se sont écoulés, mais ceux qui l’ont vécue ne peuvent renoncer à l’espoir du retour.

Photo: Mohamed Ali Hamdan Zboun et la clé de sa maison.

Par Aline Jaccottet, Jérusalem

Elle est tout pour lui. Son passé, plus glorieux à mesure des souvenirs qui s’effacent; son présent, ce fardeau; son avenir, dont l’horizon n’a fait que de rétrécir avec les années, les guerres— les faits. Elle est aussi son trésor et son héritage, minuscule et écrasant: la lourde clé de sa maison, Mohamed Ali Hamdan Zboun, 92 ans, ne s’en défait jamais. «Elle ne me quittera que lorsque j’irai au cimetière», dit le vieil homme avec fierté, sa poigne rugueuse serrée autour du précieux sésame.

Un sésame qui n’ouvre plus aucune porte depuis que le 11 mai 1948, sa famille a troqué les champs qu’elle cultivait dans le village d’Iyar pour la vie étroite des camps de réfugiés. C’est là qu’on le rencontre, dans le camp d’Aïda, près de Bethléem, où vivent 6500 Palestiniens expulsés à la création de l’État d’Israël il y a septante ans. Dans une rue cabossée, dont les maisons ont été construites coincées les unes contre les autres, ce qui ne laisse aucune intimité aux habitants. «Ici, quand tu pisses, tout le monde le sait», ironise Marwan, un Palestinien qui a longtemps vécu là. L’armée israélienne n’est qu’à quelques mètres, postée en haut des miradors blindés d’où elle peut surveiller les allées et venues et les gamins à vélo qui jouent à qui osera s’approcher le plus.

Et comme dans chacun des 58 camps de réfugiés palestiniens recensés par l’Office de secours et de travaux des Nations unies pour les réfugiés de Palestine dans le Proche-Orient(UNRWA)— 19 en Cisjordanie, 8 à Gaza, 12 au Liban, 10 en Jordanie et 9 en Syrie, où vivaient en 2017 quelque 5'340’000 personnes selon l’ONU—, les habitants perpétuent avec ferveur la mémoire de leurs villages détruits. Mohammed Ali Hamdan Zboun s’en rappelle bien, lui qui avait 22 ans lorsque sa famille a dû quitter la maison. «Les attaques ont commencé en 1942 et nous avions très peur de la Haganah, alors nous sommes partis, tous les villageois en même temps», raconte-t-il sur sa chaise en plastique, à côté du matelas posé à même le sol qui lui sert de lit.

N’a-t-il jamais pu tourner la page, faire son deuil de la ferme, des animaux, des terres qu’il possédait? Car tout, depuis qu’il a fermé à clé sa maison d’Iyar, indique que Mohamed Ali Hamdan Zboun n’y reviendra pas. «Je mange des cailloux, mais ma vie est ici, aussi près que possible de chez moi», répond fermement le nonagénaire. Plusieurs fois arrière-grand-père, il a perdu sa femme il y a quelques mois: «désormais dans cette maison, il n’y a plus que moi et Dieu», dit-il.

On entend soudain des tirs pas loin: ceux des gaz lacrymogènes lancés par l’armée israélienne sur des manifestants palestiniens. Le long d’une route qui mène au mur de séparation au nord de Bethléem, ils sont venus dire leur colère après les violences de lundi à Gaza, qui ont coûté la vie à soixante personnes. La démonstration a réuni environ 500 personnes, dont douze ont été blessés par des tirs de balles en caoutchouc et trente-trois intoxiqués par l’inhalation de gaz lacrymogène. La fumée noire qui se dégageait des pneus incendiés a plané longtemps sur le camp d’Aida, dont venaient de nombreux manifestants. «Les réfugiés sont souvent les premiers à manifester», commente un habitant du coin avant d’aller tranquillement voir la scène de plus près. Daily business…

Ailleurs en Cisjordanie, on comptait mardi en fin de journée deux blessés à Hébron et un à Ramallah. Sans compter les événements de Gaza, où des affrontement ont eu lieu après les funérailles des soixante morts de la vieille. Indéniablement, mardi a été une journée spécialement triste pour les Palestiniens, entre les victimes de Gaza, les commémorations des 70 ans de la Nakba et un jour après l’inauguration de l’ambassade US qui consacre leur impuissance. Mais lorsqu’on demande à Mohamed Ali Hamdan Zboun ce que représente pour lui ce mardi 15 mai 2018, le vieil homme hausse les épaules. «Je ne ressens pas plus de chagrin que tous les jours depuis le 11 mai 1948.»

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