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  • 11 mai 2018 - 08:00
  • Esther R. Suter 4499 signes
ProtestInter

«Personne ne devrait être laissé de côté»

Sizani Ngubane et Phumzile Mlambo-NgzukaLa session annuelle de la Commission de la condition de la femme des Nations Unies s’est penchée sur les conditions de travail des femmes en milieu rural, fin mars à New York. Comment tendre vers plus d’égalité?

Photo: Sizani Ngubane et Phumzile Mlambo-Ngzuka

Par Esther R. Suter

Comment parvenir à l’égalité des sexes et à l’autonomisation des femmes en milieu rural? Cette question a été au centre des réflexions, lors de la session annuelle de la Commission de la condition de la femme des Nations Unies (ONU-femmes) qui s’est déroulée du 12 au 23 mars dernier, à New York. Phumzile Mlambo-Ngzuka, secrétaire générale adjointe de l’ONU et directrice d’ONU-femmes, a appelé à l’autonomisation des femmes et des filles dans les régions rurales en soutenant: «personne ne devrait être laissé de côté». Ce slogan qui guide les objectifs de développements durables de 2015 à 2030 s’adresse à toutes les minorités de femmes marginalisées comme les veuves, indigènes, LGBTI, handicapées, migrantes et autres, arrivées de tous les continents.

«Ne laisser personne de côté» est basé sur une citation biblique de l’évangile de Matthieu (25, 40) et peut être une vision d’inclusion de tous. Depuis 2015, la collaboration entre institutions, organisations gouvernementales et non gouvernementales et la société civile s’accentue. Parallèlement, le nombre de manifestations religieuses et interreligieuses a augmenté tout en s’orientant vers des valeurs progressistes et sociales. Quelques dirigeants à l’ONU comme le Secrétaire général Antonio Gutteres ou Phumzile Mlambo-Ngzuka soutiennent cette sensibilisation en parlant eux-mêmes de leur provenance religieuse.

L’impact positif de la religion

La religion introduit des liens positifs entre les personnes et sa signification prend de l’ampleur. Par exemple, le travail de la coalition ACT-Alliance, qui rassemble 125 Églises et organisations actives dans l’aide humanitaire et le développement, illustre cet impact positif. Des dirigeants religieux, femmes et hommes, ont des positions clefs, surtout dans des pays particulièrement religieux et avec de grandes régions rurales. Aujourd’hui, le message selon lequel la religion peut s’engager pour la justice et l’égalité des genres grâce à une critique des pratiques culturelles et traditionnelles comme le mariage forcé des jeunes filles ou la mutilation génitale féminine prend de l’ampleur.

Les régions rurales où ces coutumes existent encore sont souvent décrites comme particulièrement «religieuses». Actuellement, on cherche de nouveaux repères narratifs, de nouvelles histoires, qui devraient modifier les traditions et les coutumes empêchant l’autonomisation des femmes. Lors de la session annuelle de la Commission de la condition de la femme des Nations Unies, des femmes asiatiques de régions rurales ont exprimé leur volonté d’abandonner une mentalité de victime et de promouvoir la transformation.

En parallèle de la session annuelle, ONU-Femmes, Act-Alliance et d’autres ONG ont organisé un événement intitulé «Leaving No One Behind for Planet 50/50» (Ne laisser tomber personne). Précédemment, UNO-femmes avait souligné que plus de 750 millions de femmes et de filles dans le monde étaient mariées avant l’âge de 18 ans. Lors de cette rencontre, les déléguées des ONG étaient assises autour de tables rondes afin de partager leurs expériences. Après des témoignages très personnels, l’échange s’est poursuivi à l’aide de questionnaires à compléter ensemble. Quelque 500 femmes y ont participé, tandis que 1000 n’ont pas trouvé de places.

À travail égal, salaire égal

De son côté, Sylvie Durrer, directrice du Bureau fédéral d’égalité entre femmes et hommes, a ouvert la rencontre sur «La participation des femmes rurales à la gouvernance». Elle a expliqué le but d’avoir un salaire égal pour un travail égal entre les femmes et hommes en Suisse. Des pays comme l’Égypte, la Nouvelle-Zélande, les Philippines et l’Afrique du Sud avaient coorganisé cet évènement. Sylvie Durrer a souligné que dans l’agriculture les femmes occupaient 36% des postes, dont la majorité n’était pas rémunérée (env. 56% sont des partenaires de dirigeants d’entreprises). «Il faut faire de la sensibilisation afin d’améliorer leur sécurité sociale et leur position légale», a-t-elle souligné.

Déléguée officielle des ONG de Suisse, Kathrin Bieri est co-secrétaire générale de l’Union suisse des paysannes et des femmes rurales. Cette organisation donne une voix à environ 58'000 paysannes. Kathrin Bieri a souligné l’importance de la diversité des informations reçues et les contacts avec toutes les personnes présentes: «Beaucoup des sujets abordés se retrouvent dans la société civile suisse. Par exemple, la question de la participation des femmes au gouvernement et dans les organisations. En Suisse, les organisations rurales sont portées par des hommes. C’est pourquoi nous voulons promouvoir la participation des femmes. De façon générale, l’égalité de salaire, l’accès à la terre, à l’eau et au droit sont primordiaux».

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