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  • 09 mai 2018 - 08:10
  • Nicolas Meyer, Réformés 2766 signes
Eglises

Les Églises romandes face à Mai 68

Feuilles d'Avis de LausanneLes milieux religieux n’ont pas échappé à la vague contestataire de la fin des années soixante. Retour sur cette partie de l’histoire à l’occasion des 50 ans de Mai 68.

Photo: Des membres de la Paroisse œcuménique des Jeunes (PODJ) protestent en réaction à l’interdiction de procéder à une double célébration eucharistique (Archives tirées de la Feuille d’Avis de Lausanne du 8 avril 1969).

Par Nicolas Meyer, Réformés

À la fin des années soixante, les Facultés de théologie protestantes de Suisse romande sont en plein bouillonnement. «Plusieurs étudiants remettent en question la figure du pasteur en tant que détenteur d’une vérité qu’il est censé inculquer aux autres», introduit Gilles Descloux, qui travaille actuellement à un doctorat sur l’influence de Mai 68 dans les Églises romandes. Son étude porte sur les villes de Genève, Lausanne et Fribourg.

Des étudiants en théologie de la Faculté de Genève vont publier, en avril 1967 déjà, le Manifeste des 22. Ce document questionne en profondeur l’Église en tant qu’institution. La critique porte principalement sur leur manque d’engagement politique. «Nous sommes en pleine période de décolonisation. La guerre d’Algérie vient tout juste de se terminer et celle du Vietnam occupe les actualités internationales», précise Gilles Descloux. Une grande partie de la jeunesse chrétienne de l’époque est militante et souhaite s’impliquer davantage dans les problèmes du monde.

Fougue œcuménique

Les jeunes de l’Église catholique sont également en pleine effervescence. «Le Concile Vatican II (1962-1965) a apporté un nouvel élan. L’ouverture au monde prôné par ce dernier favorise les mouvements œcuméniques. En 1969, la Paroisse Œcuménique des Jeunes (PODJ) organise des ateliers réflexifs sur les questions de société à l’église des Terreaux à Lausanne. Des centaines de jeunes répondent à l’invitation. La rencontre dure plusieurs jours. Ils vont même jusqu’à partager la sainte cène. «Pour les autorités catholiques, c’était la ligne rouge qu’il ne fallait pas dépasser», ajoute le doctorant. Cet acte leur vaudra également un blâme du Synode de l’Église réformée vaudoise. En signe de protestations, une quinzaine de jeunes de la PODJ vont entamer une grève de la faim. Une grande célébration œcuménique aura lieu Place de la Palud à Lausanne.

Vers la confrontation

Ces jeunes qui désirent réveiller les consciences ne font pourtant pas l’unanimité au sein des Églises qui cherchent le consensus entre une frange plus traditionnelle et cette jeunesse revendicatrice. «Malheureusement, cette manière de régler la situation n’est pas compatible avec les idées révolutionnaires de l’époque», analyse le doctorant.

Lassée par cette attitude, une partie de ces jeunes chrétiens militants vont se distancer de l’Église pour rejoindre des mouvements de la gauche radicale. D’autres vont rester fidèles à l’institution et favoriser l’émergence de la pensée éthique et théologique dans la vie paroissiale. Pour Gilles Descloux, ces événements contribuent également à transformer la religion institutionnelle en un engagement personnel, plus libre et plus réflexif qui laisse une grande part à la remise en question. «Certains jeunes qui ont participé à ces événements vont beaucoup s’investir dans les Centres sociaux protestants et la lutte contre le rejet des migrants et la xénophobie».

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