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  • 05 mars 2018 - 09:00
  • EPD/Protestinter 2062 signes
ProtestInter

Nombre d’informations qui circulent sur le christianisme sont «grossièrement fausses»

chasse aux sorcières via https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Persecution_of_witches.jpgDans son dernier livre, un psychiatre et théologien allemand revient sur plusieurs «points chauds» de l’histoire de l’Église tels que les procès en sorcellerie et les missions. Il propose de repenser le rôle que l’Église y a joué.

Fribourg-en-Brisgau (EPD/Protestinter). Pour l’auteur Manfred Lütz, le christianisme est «la religion la plus méconnue du monde occidental». La raison à cela: l’énorme quantité d’informations «grossièrement fausses» présentes à son sujet dans la conscience collective, écrit ce psychiatre bonnois et théologien catholique dans son dernier ouvrage «Der Skandal der Skandale. Die geheime Geschichte des Christentums» (Le scandale des scandales. Histoire secrète du christianisme), publié par l’éditeur fribourgeois Herder Verlag. Ces idées reçues auraient durablement ébranlé le cœur même du message chrétien, lui ôtant absolument toute crédibilité, déclare ce spécialiste, médecin-chef de l’hôpital Alexianer-Krankenhaus de Cologne et membre de l’Académie pontificale pour la vie.

En collaboration avec l’historien münsternois spécialiste des Églises Arnold Angenendt, Manfred Lütz s’attaque à divers «points chauds» de l’histoire de l’Église, comme celui de la chasse aux sorcières. D’après lui, les premiers procès en question n’étaient quasiment jamais menés par des religieux, mais plutôt par des politiques et des laïques. Si c’est bien un prêtre dominicain allemand, Heinrich Kramer, qui a rédigé en 1487 l’œuvre devenue célèbre sous le nom de «Marteau des sorcières», il adoptait là une position à cent lieues de la tradition chrétienne.

Cet ouvrage a donné lieu à d’importantes vagues de persécutions, mais les procès consécutifs ont été tenus par des tribunaux profanes qui n’avaient rien à voir avec la juridiction religieuse, souligne Manfred Lütz. La fin de ce mouvement a principalement été amenée par des chrétiens convaincus tels que le jésuite Friedrich Spee (1591-1635), qui a redonné vie au principe de la présomption d’innocence et exigé son application dans les procès de sorcières. «C’est en réalité le président de la Cour constitutionnelle fédérale qui devrait s’excuser pour les révoltantes et meurtrières exactions perpétrées par ses prédécesseurs, et même remercier l’Église d’avoir contribué à mettre fin à cette sombre période», poursuit-il.

Quant aux missions chrétiennes, l’auteur affirme que les prêtres concernés se sont toujours faits les porte-parole des populations autochtones, encourageant dans leurs écoles l’émergence de leur désir de liberté: «Il n’est donc pas étonnant que l’opposition des peuples colonisés et leurs demandes d’autonomie se soient d’abord articulées dans les milieux chrétiens». Dès 1500, les Franciscains s’étaient retournés contre Christophe Colomb et le reste de son expédition en les voyant réduire en esclavage des Indiens d’Amérique.

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