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  • 20 février 2018 - 08:00
  • Jasmin Maxwell (EPD/Protestinter) 3537 signes
ProtestInter

L’Église catholique ne peut se préoccuper uniquement des fidèles qui fréquentent la messe

Deux panneaux "Exit" https://flic.kr/p/4VXMmRUne récente recherche menée par le diocèse d’Essen en Allemagne vise à comprendre pourquoi les fidèles quittent l’Église. Rencontre avec Thomas Rünker, coauteur de l’étude «Sortir ou non de l’Église».

Photo: CC (by) Karen

Par Jasmin Maxwell (EPD/Protestinter)

Essen – D’après une étude menée par le diocèse d’Essen, si elle veut mettre fin à sa perte de vitesse, l’Église doit s’intéresser davantage à ses membres les moins impliqués. «Dans notre diocèse, moins de 10% des catholiques se rendent à la messe le dimanche», souligne Thomas Rünker, coauteur de l’étude et directeur du groupe de projet «Initiative pour le maintien au sein de l’Église», dans un entretien avec le Service de presse protestant (EPD). «Mais tout le travail de la communauté tourne en général justement autour de cette petite proportion.» Les experts sollicités par le diocèse ont analysé les raisons des départs de l’Église et interrogé d’anciens catholiques. Le fruit de leurs travaux vient de paraître dans le livre Sortir ou non de l’Église — ce que l’institution doit changer à son fonctionnement (Titre original: Kirchenaustritt - oder nicht? Wie Kirche sich verändern muss), aux éditions Herder Verlag.

EPD: Le diocèse d’Essen souhaite mieux comprendre pourquoi des fidèles en arrivent à quitter l’Église catholique. Quelles réponses cette étude a-t-elle apportées?

Thomas Rünker: D’après nos conclusions, les raisons principales sont un éloignement vis-à-vis de l’Église, ou l’absence d’un véritable lien. Quand on interroge des personnes sorties de l’institution religieuse, le premier argument cité est l’impôt ecclésiastique. Mais nos travaux ont montré que bien que celui-ci puisse être un élément déclencheur, il ne représente généralement pas la cause profonde de cette démarche. Une mauvaise expérience lors de funérailles ou d’un baptême, par exemple, a un impact bien plus fort. La question financière ou un scandale au sein de l’Église peuvent alors représenter la goutte d’eau qui fait déborder le vase.

Cette étude invite l’institution religieuse à s’intéresser davantage aux personnes qui font encore partie de sa communauté, tout en ayant pris une certaine distance. Comment y parvenir?

Dans le diocèse d’Essen, moins de 10% des catholiques se rendent à la messe le dimanche. Mais tout le travail de la communauté tourne en général justement autour de cette petite proportion. Les 90% restants, dont la contribution à l’impôt ecclésiastique finance pourtant la majorité des activités religieuses, ne font que rarement l’objet d’une quelconque prise de contact. Notre étude préconise une nouvelle politique vis-à-vis des fidèles, qui les considère tous sans exception. Pour notre part, nous avons déjà mis en place un magazine dédié à la paroisse, «Bene», que nous faisons parvenir gratuitement à l’ensemble des foyers catholiques. On peut également envisager un point d’accueil centralisé qui réceptionnerait les suggestions ou les plaintes. Autre élément essentiel, l’expérience que connaissent les fidèles plutôt éloignés de l’Église lorsqu’ils souhaitent par exemple se marier religieusement ou faire baptiser leur enfant: leurs interlocuteurs les accueillent-ils avec bienveillance? Prend-on le temps de les écouter et de s’intéresser à leurs besoins spécifiques?

Vos travaux citent aussi d’autres raisons de départ, touchant cette fois à la doctrine: par exemple la position de l’Église vis-à-vis de l’homosexualité ou du remariage des divorcés. Est-il encore possible de se rapprocher de personnes qui récusent des aspects aussi fondamentaux de la pensée catholique?

Notre expérience locale nous amène à penser que même en cas de divergence d’opinions, le dialogue reste toujours possible. On peut très bien parvenir à discuter tout en gardant des points de vue opposés. Toutefois, notre étude montre clairement que si elle souhaite rester en phase avec la société actuelle et éviter de perdre des fidèles, l’Église doit savoir remettre en cause certaines positions — par exemple vis-à-vis de la bénédiction des couples homosexuels. Nous ne faisons néanmoins que mettre en lumière certains problèmes et faire des propositions. La manière exacte de les gérer, pour notre diocèse comme pour l’ensemble de l’Église, reste à définir.

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