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  • 23 janvier 2018 - 09:52
  • laurence villoz 2741 signes
Médias

Les migrants grands absents des articles sur l’asile

Article de presse sur la migrationUne récente enquête sur la représentation médiatique des réfugiés en Europe met en évidence le fait que ces personnes ne sont que rarement mentionnées dans les articles. Au centre des préoccupations: les questions de législation nationale.

Par Laurence Villoz

«L’Europe a connu une vague de migration à partir de 2015 qui a été fortement médiatisée. Nous avons souhaité analyser la façon dont la presse abordait cette question», explique Stephen Brown, président de la région Europe de l’Association mondiale pour la communication chrétienne (WACC-Europe). La Commission des Églises auprès des migrants en Europe (CCME) et la WACC-Europe ont réalisé une enquête sur la représentation médiatique des réfugiés entre juillet et août 2017, dans sept pays: la Grèce, l’Italie, la Norvège, la Serbie, l’Espagne, la Suède et le Royaume-Uni. Publiée fin 2017, la recherche montre que seulement 21% des articles sur l’asile et la migration mentionnent un réfugié ou un migrant au profit de questions législatives. Le taux est toutefois très variable d’un pays à l’autre: en Serbie, il s’élève à 100% contre 8% au Royaume-Uni.

«La Serbie n’a que peu connu de vague migratoire, contrairement au Royaume-Uni. Ces situations différentes peuvent expliquer l’écart entre ces deux pays», estime Stephen Brown. La recherche met également en évidence le fait que certains groupes sont quasiment invisibles comme les femmes. Sur les 21%, seulement près d’un quart mentionnent des migrantes, soit 6% sur l’ensemble des articles depresse. Parallèlement, certaines communautés comme les Afghans qui constituent le deuxième plus grand groupe de demandeurs d’asile en Europe ne sont qu’au quatrième rang des nationalités les plus citées. De même que les Nigérians représentés dans seulement 2% des données analysées. Par ailleurs, parmi les articles qui mentionnent des migrants, seulement 40% d’entre eux contiennent des citations.

571 sources analysées

Pour réaliser cette recherche, les deux organisations ont choisi une série de médias généralistes dans chaque pays, comprenant des journaux nationaux et locaux de tous les bords politiques et religieux, en ligne et en version imprimée, ainsi que les fils Twitter des organismes de presse. Au total, 571 sources. Les coordinateurs notent toutefois que les résultats reflètent des tendances générales visant à susciter la discussion et motiver d’autres recherches. Ils estiment que l’image des migrants et des réfugiés véhiculée dans la presse influence largement le ton des débats public et ainsi les politiques d’accueil.

«À la suite des résultats, nous avons organisé une rencontre entre migrants et journalistes à Bruxelles. Une démarche que nous souhaitons voir se développer», ajoute Stephen Brown qui espère également pouvoir poursuivre cette recherche en l’élargissant à d’autres pays et prendre en compte plus largement ce qui se passe sur les réseaux sociaux. Initialement, la France devait faire partie des pays étudiés, mais la récente élection du président Emmanuel Macron était au centre des préoccupations de la presse à la période de l’enquête, invalidant ainsi les données.

 

«Le rapport sur les réfugiés»

Le rapport est disponible dans son intégralité en anglais. Un résumé des principaux résultats existe également en espagnol, en allemand, en français et en arabe.

 

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