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  • 10 août 2017 - 09:15
  • Caroline Amberger 3739 signes
Ethique

Jean Martin, «Des repères pour choisir»

Livre Jean MartinSi confronté à un problème d’ordre éthique, entendez «Comment faire pour bien faire?», vous chercheriez une réponse toute faite ne lisez surtout pas le dernier livre de Jean Martin. Mais si vous êtes prêt à parcourir les jalons que pose l’auteur, sans intention paternaliste, dans une légèreté souhaitée, mais avec profondeur alors ce livre est pour vous.

Propos recueillis par Caroline Amberger

Médecin cantonal vaudois entre 1986 et 2003, acteur engagé dans des commissions d’éthique, le Dr Jean Martin propose dans son dernier livre «Des repères pour choisir» paru aux éditions Socialinfo ce qu’il définit lui-même comme un «ouvrage fait de mes idées et de mes lectures sous une forme légère afin de réfléchir à ce que nous sommes, où nous allons, avec une réflexion sur l’avenir du monde». Interview.

Jean Martin, vous livrez dans «Des repères pour choisir» des rencontres, des lectures et parfois des anecdotes qui montrent combien la société a évolué dans les questions éthiques. Pensez-vous que nos repères ont beaucoup changé?

Il faut souligner qu’il y a presque autant de définitions et conceptions de l’éthique que de gens. Ce qui a changé c’est que l’on est passé des codes de déontologie qu’avaient les médecins, les avocats et même les pasteurs envers leurs ouailles à des principes d’éthiques modernes avec l’émergence du sujet autonome. Le simple citoyen dans son rôle de malade ou de paroissien assume plus d’autonomie. Ce qui prime dans la relation entre soignant et soignée ce n’est plus cette attitude paternaliste, celle d’une corporation qui dans sa grande sagesse croyait juste. Paradoxalement, l’émergence du sujet peut être angoissante. Il faut des repères pour faire des choix. Décider de tout peut être stressant. J’ai aussi constaté dans ma carrière des modifications sociétales. Par exemple, il y a une admission sociale de l’homosexualité. J’ai été beaucoup en contact avec ces milieux pendant l’épopée du SIDA. Il y a une acceptation qui était inimaginable encore dans les années 1980. J’ai vu tant de vies gâchées, de vies clandestines et de drames. Alors qu’on a simplement le droit d’être comme on est!

Quelle est l’éthique qui vous tient à cœur?

Je suis un libéral. Une adhésion stricte aux droits de l’homme amène à des évolutions pas encore complètement admises. Si vous prenez l’exemple de la procréation médicalement assistée ou de la gestation pour autrui en suivant l’application des droits de l’individu posés dans les textes internationaux on devrait accepter ces nouveaux défis dont les pratiques sont de toute façon déjà là. Je reste persuadé que la base en éthique c’est le respect des intérêts et des droits humains. Je ne cautionne pas le droit de faire tout et n’importe quoi, mais l’autonomie et l’indépendance du sujet tout en tenant compte du bien-être de la société. Cette idée du bien commun m’a toujours animée en tant que médecin cantonal.

Faut il légiférer les grands défis sociétaux comme le suicide assisté par exemple?

A l’évidence non. Nous n’avons pas à légiférer des comportements privés surtout lorsque cela ne nuit pas à autrui. Il y a des décisions qui appartiennent à la sphère des choix de l’individu et qui doivent le rester. C’est d’ailleurs un des points passionnants de l’éthique: éviter les dérapages tout en sauvegardant la neutralité de l’état. On ne vit pas dans un monde parfait. Si l’on veut que tout soit contrôlé à 100%, cela serait un monde totalitaire. Il faut savoir vivre avec un petit nombre de risques, et accepter des pratiques discutables.

Une figure marquante que vous retenez?

Jonathan Mann, un pionnier de la lutte contre le sida et sur le plan sociétal Nelson Mandela puis Barack Obama. Marion Muller-Colard, qui a dit des choses pas faciles à dire comme «Pas plus que le bonheur la maladie n’est juste». Il y aurait encore France Quéré, figure des sujets éthiques dans les années 1980. Finalement, je crois que tous ces gens me touchent parce qu’ils sont marqués par la tolérance tout en affirmant les valeurs du bien commun.

 

Référence
Jean Martin, «Des repères pour choisir», Editions Socialinfo, Lausanne, 2017

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