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  • 26 décembre 2016 - 08:15
  • laurence villoz 2277 signes
Société

Quand l’imprimerie bouleversa la religion

Série «L’imprimerie et la Réforme»

La Bible de Gutenberg https://flic.kr/p/6wWs1sGrâce au développement de l’impression, les textes des réformateurs du XVIe siècle ont gagné rapidement toute l’Europe. La Réforme protestante ne tient-elle qu’à cette nouvelle technique qui a révolutionné la transmission des idées?

Photo: La Bible de Gutenberg CC (by-sa) NYC Wanderer

Par Laurence Villoz

«Les protestants vont très rapidement utiliser l’imprimerie comme outil de propagande pour diffuser leurs idées et les polémiques religieuses», souligne Karine Crousaz, historienne à l’Université de Lausanne. Les 95 thèses que Luther a placardées sur la porte de l’église de Wittenberg, le 31 octobre 1517, dénonçant le trafic des indulgences dans l’Eglise catholique ont été immédiatement imprimées et diffusées dans toute l’Allemagne.

Gutenberg a imprimé le premier livre, une Bible en latin, en 1455. «A cette époque, donc avant la Réforme, le livre religieux occupe une place centrale dans les impressions, notamment des prières, des sermons et même des Bibles en langues vernaculaires, comme la traduction française de Jacques Lefèvre d’Etaples. Mais dès que Luther traduit sa Bible en allemand, les traductions en langue vernaculaire vont très vite être perçues comme hérétiques par l’Eglise catholique», explique l’historienne.

Et alors que l’Eglise catholique pratique la censure préalable, des centres d’impression essaiment depuis le sud de l’Allemagne en Italie, en France et en Suisse. «Au XVIe siècle, Genève devient un très grand centre d’impression des textes des réformateurs Pierre Viret, Jean Calvin et Guillaume Farel. Ce sont des outils de propagandes majeurs. Les textes s’adressent à des publics plus ou moins savants: il y a des ouvrages théologiques en latin et d’autres, beaucoup plus populaires, comme les écrits de Pierre Viret qui sont souvent écrits sous forme de dialogues en français».

Démocratisation de la théologie

«Chez les réformateurs, il y a quelque chose de particulier avec la théologie. Ce savoir concerne chacun. Chaque chrétien doit pouvoir avoir accès à ces connaissances, parce qu’elles concernent son salut et qu’il a un rôle à jouer dans son salut. Donc il y a vraiment chez les réformateurs une volonté d’expliquer aux gens en quoi les rites de l’Eglise catholique étaient faux, selon eux, et quelle était la vérité parce que cela concerne chacun».

Le mouvement de la Réforme serait-il tombé dans l’oubli sans l’imprimerie? «La diffusion des textes a certes joué un rôle majeur, mais il ne faut pas oublier l’énorme travail des prédicateurs qui allaient de paroisse en paroisse, qui prêchaient sur les places publiques et dans les églises quand ils en avaient l’autorisation. Trois principaux facteurs ont permis l’expansion des idées de la Réforme: l’imprimerie, la prédication et aussi les décisions des souverains qui imposaient la religion», explique l’historienne.

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