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Un jogui qui nourrit un paon par dévotionLe Musée international de la Réforme à Genève présente une sélection de gravures insolites du 18e siècle illustrant toutes les pratiques religieuses connues de l’époque. Des œuvres à imprimer sur une presse de Gutenberg géante, jusqu’au 19 août.

Photo: Un jogui qui nourrit un paon par dévotion © MIR, Roman Lusser

Par Laurence Villoz

Un jogui qui nourrit un paon par dévotion, Isis avec une tête de vache allaitant Horus et encore la figure antique d’un prêtre romain. La nouvelle exposition temporaire du Musée international de la Réforme (MIR) à Genève, intitulée «Reprint – Figures insolites du 18e» propose de découvrir treize gravures tirées des sept volumes de «Cérémonies et coutumes religieuses de tous les peuples du Monde». Ces ouvrages, publiés par l’éditeur protestant Jean-Frédéric Bernard et le graveur janséniste Bernard Picard, de 1723 à 1737 en Hollande, contiennent plus de 3400 pages et 260 gravures. C’est le premier ouvrage comparatiste religieux de l’histoire.

presse MIRUne réplique de la presse de Gutenberg est au cœur de la nouvelle exposition temporaire du Musée international de la Réforme. L’occasion de réfléchir au lien entre message et moyens de transmission.

Photo: Gabriel de Montmollin fait une démonstration du fonctionnement de la presse.

Par Joël Burri

La machine pèse 400kg. 3m de haut, 1m50 de large et 4m de long. L’ébéniste d’Yverdon-les-Bains Pierre-Yves Schenker qui la construite s’est inspiré notamment de la description qui est faite de la presse de Gutenberg dans l’Encyclopédie de Diderot et d’Alembert. L’artisan a soigné l’esthétique; de fait, cette réplique est probablement beaucoup plus belle que la véritable presse de Gutenberg.

Série «L’imprimerie et la Réforme»

Un atelier d'imprimeurs, gravure de Jost Amman, 1568, via https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Printer_in_1568-ce.pngJean Calvin n’a pas seulement permis un essor culturel à Genève, mais aussi le développement d’une industrie florissante: l’imprimerie.

Gravure: Jost Amman, 1568

Par Joël Burri

Au milieu du XVIe siècle, Neuchâtel, Lausanne ou Genève accueillent de nombreux imprimeurs acquis aux idées de la Réforme venus de France ou d’Italie. Genève en particulier acquiert en quelques années une renommée européenne et mondiale. Avant 1540, pas plus de cinq livres étaient publiés chaque année au bout du lac. En 1544, c’est 20 titres qui y ont été imprimés et en 1561 on atteint les 75.

Série «L’imprimerie et la Réforme»

Réplique de la presse de Gutenberg ©atelier-musée «encre & plomb» Des caractères en plomb, moulés individuellement, que l’on peut aligner rapidement puis encrer pour marquer autant de feuilles que souhaité. Le caractère mobile de Gutenberg a révolutionné la diffusion des textes.

Photo: Réplique de la presse de Gutenberg ©atelier-musée «encre & plomb» 

Par Joël Burri

Des caractères en relief qui peuvent être placés côte à côte puis encrés et sur lesquels on vient appliquer une page. Cette invention attribuée à Jean Gutenberg, un orfèvre né vers 1400 à Mayence, dans le Saint-Empire germanique est souvent présentée comme une révolution qui a permis une diffusion rapide des idées de la Réforme. Par rapport au travail des moines-copistes, il est vrai que l’impression permettait une réduction importante des coûts de production des écrits et garantissait des copies sans erreur. Mais, plus qu’une révolution, l’invention de Gutenberg est le fruit d’une longue évolution.

lundi, 26 décembre 2016 08:15

Quand l’imprimerie bouleversa la religion

Série «L’imprimerie et la Réforme»

La Bible de Gutenberg https://flic.kr/p/6wWs1sGrâce au développement de l’impression, les textes des réformateurs du XVIe siècle ont gagné rapidement toute l’Europe. La Réforme protestante ne tient-elle qu’à cette nouvelle technique qui a révolutionné la transmission des idées?

Photo: La Bible de Gutenberg CC (by-sa) NYC Wanderer

Par Laurence Villoz

«Les protestants vont très rapidement utiliser l’imprimerie comme outil de propagande pour diffuser leurs idées et les polémiques religieuses», souligne Karine Crousaz, historienne à l’Université de Lausanne. Les 95 thèses que Luther a placardées sur la porte de l’église de Wittenberg, le 31 octobre 1517, dénonçant le trafic des indulgences dans l’Eglise catholique ont été immédiatement imprimées et diffusées dans toute l’Allemagne.

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