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  • 05 septembre 2018 - 10:34
  • laurence villoz 6141 signes
Théologie

«La révélation biblique n’est pas du sous-savoir»

Le philosophe catholique Jean-Luc Marion donnera une conférence publique sur le concept de Révélation, mardi 25 septembre, à l’Uni Bastions à Genève. Membre de l’Académie française, son œuvre est discutée dans le monde entier.

Par Laurence Villoz

De façon générale, qu’est-ce qu’une révélation?

La révélation est ce qui permet de comprendre. Par exemple, on se trouve devant un tableau confus et on ne sait pas comment le regarder. Et d’un seul coup, on se met à la bonne distance avec le bon éclairage, le bon angle et subitement on voit ce qu’il représente. C’est une expérience qu’on fait souvent dans bien des domaines. Tout est sur la table, mais on ne voit pas du tout à quoi cela ressemble. C’est vrai quand on doit monter un meuble IKEA ou quand on lit un roman policier. D’un seul coup, on comprend, parce que cela se met en place et s’organise. La révélation c’est ça.

Votre pari: prouver qu’on peut comprendre la révélation biblique par la connaissance, pourquoi vous attaquer à ce monstre de la théologie?

Beaucoup de gens pensent que la révélation biblique est un ensemble d’énoncés qui dans le meilleur des cas sont peut-être vrais, mais qui ne peuvent pas être démontrés. Il faut croire puisqu’on ne peut pas les démontrer. Donc, c’est du sous-savoir. Pour moi, ce n’est pas du sous-savoir. Ce sont des informations que nous ne pouvons pas comprendre, parce que nous n’avons pas le mode d’emploi.

Positivement, révélation signifie dévoiler, mettre en lumière ce qui est caché. C’est justement pour cela que tout le monde n’y arrive pas. Il faut donc commencer par expliquer dans quel sens une vérité peut se découvrir ou non.

Et comment faire pour découvrir une vérité?

Une vérité, c’est l’apparition d’un phénomène, le dévoilement d’un phénomène. Je me suis intéressé à une qualification des différents types de phénomènes. Il y en a trois: les phénomènes habituels quand il y a adéquation entre intuition et concept. Par exemple, quand je dis ceci est un arbre et que je vois un tronc, des feuilles et des racines, je suis sûr que c’est un arbre. Deuxièmement, les phénomènes pauvres en intuition comme une équation mathématique où seul le concept des chiffres permet d’arriver au résultat. Ce sont les deux formes habituelles du phénomène. Quand il y a un concept sans intuition du tout, il n’y a pas de phénomène. Ou quand les signes d’intuition ne correspondent pas du tout, c’est faux.

Quant au troisième type de phénomènes?

Ce sont les phénomènes où il y a «trop» d’intuition pour qu’un concept permette de l’identifier vraiment. Par exemple, le phénomène musical. Quand on entend de la musique, on perçoit très bien le phénomène, on peut rechanter le thème, on s’en souvient. On sait qu’on l’aime, mais on ne peut pas le définir par un concept. C’est ce que j’appelle un «phénomène saturé», il y a trop d’intuition pour qu’on puisse avec un ou une combinaison de concepts expliquer pourquoi c’est ce que c’est. L’exemple typique est le phénomène érotique. Il reste inexplicable à tous les niveaux. Pourquoi est-ce qu’on est attiré par un tel plutôt qu’un autre? Qu’est-ce qu’on éprouve quand on est amoureux de quelqu’un ou quand on le prend dans ses bras? On ne peut pas le décrire. Il y a peu d’expériences aussi violentes que l’orgasme et pourtant il est indescriptible.

Et vous placez la révélation biblique dans la même catégorie?

À mon avis, l’expérience biblique de Dieu est un phénomène saturé. Beaucoup de personnes affirment comprendre le christianisme, mais n’avoir pas reçu la grâce: «j’ai pas fait l’expérience, donc je ne crois pas». Les gens estiment qu’il n’y a pas d’expériences qui permettent de le vérifier, qu’il n’y a pas d’intuition. Pour moi, la difficulté ce n’est pas cela, mais l’inverse!

La révélation biblique est phénomène surchargé en intuition. Un cas exceptionnel qui modifie les conditions de l’expérience. Trop puissant. Pour le saisir, il va falloir faire des efforts. Tout phénomène saturé vous déstabilise. Quand vous vous rendez compte que vous allez beaucoup souffrir, tomber amoureux ou changer entièrement vos goûts ou votre style de vie, vous pouvez renoncer à prendre des risques. C’est une expérience, si on la prend au sérieux, qui va changer notre vie. Très concrètement, cela veut dire que dans le cadre de l’expérience du Christ il faudrait être comme lui, donc cesser d’être comme «je» suis. «Et ça, je n’en ai pas tellement envie. Dans l’abstrait, ce serait mieux que je sois mieux, mais on a nos habitudes.» Et les gens peuvent vouloir dire, «je vous soutiens, j’admire ce que vous faites, mais fichez-moi la paix». Et c’est ce qui se passe. Le fait que les gens refusent le phénomène saturé du Christ semble, en un sens, normal. C’est presque une confirmation que c’est un phénomène saturé.

 

Infos:

Jean-Luc Marion donnera une conférence publique intitulée «Que signifie le concept de Révélation?», le 25 septembre, à 18h15, à l’Uni Bastions (Aula B 106), à Genève.

Il donnera également un cours sur cette même thématique, destiné aux étudiants et aux auditeurs, à l’Uni Bastions durant le semestre d’automne 2018.

 

Jean-Luc Marion en bref

Né en 1946, à Meudon, en France, Jean-Luc Marion est un philosophe et académicien français. Durant sa carrière, il a entre autres été professeur de philosophie à l’université de Poitiers, Paris-X-Nanterre puis à la Sorbonne où il a occupé la chaire de métaphysique à la suite d’Emmanuel Levinas. Jean-Luc Marion a également été nommé membre du Conseil pontifical pour la culture par le pape Benoît XVI. Actuellement, il enseigne à l’Université de Chicago où il a succédé à Paul Ricœur. Phénoménologue reconnu, son œuvre a reçu de multiples distinctions.

 

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