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  • 12 juillet 2018 - 08:10
  • Aline Jaccottet 4624 signes
Politique

Khan al-Ahmar, symbole d’une vie menacée

Khan al-AhmarLa destruction prochaine par Israël du village de Khan al-Ahmar en Cisjordanie a suscité une mobilisation inédite. Et interpelle sur le sort des Bédouins dont l’espace vital diminue.

Photo: Douze des communautés palestiniennes menacées d'expulsion par Israël vivent dans la région de Khan al-Ahmar, en Cisjordanie © Aline Jaccottet

Par Aline Jaccottet, Khan al-Ahmar

Des milliers de fois, ses mains ont cuit et malaxé le pain, trait les bêtes, étendu des matelas pour dormir, soigné les petits. Dès qu’elle a su se tenir debout, Sara a travaillé et dans ses doigts noueux et burinés, on lit un dur labeur et beaucoup d’amour. En cette chaude après-midi, ses mains racontent autre chose aussi: de l’angoisse. Rien ne peut l’apaiser, ni l’ombre du figuier qui étend ses longues branches devant sa maison, ni les ronrons des chatons se pressant autour de leur mère, à côté des chèvres qui broutent les oreilles en avant.

De la colline à la décharge

Car les rires de ses sept enfants seront remplacés, probablement dès lundi, par le fracas des bulldozers. Ils emporteront tout dans leur sillage, sa cuisine, la clôture soigneusement dressée autour de ses animaux et les matelas sur lesquels elle dort. Sa vie, en somme. Mais le gouvernement israélien l’a décidé: les habitants de Khan al Ahmar doivent partir. Certes, il s’est engagé au mois de mai à réinstaller les Bédouins, mais le lieu qui leur a été attribué est inacceptable à leurs yeux. Non seulement parce qu’il faudrait vivre à côté d’un lieu insalubre – une décharge appartenant à la ville palestinienne d’Abou Dis – mais aussi parce que le voisinage serait très problématique. Les habitants de Khan Al Ahmar, du clan Abou Dahouk, devraient côtoyer le clan Salamat, alors que les deux, pourtant issus de la tribu Jahalin, l’une des cinq de la région, sont en bisbille depuis des générations.  

Ce campement bédouin a beau être situé juste à côté de l’autoroute reliant les colonies israéliennes de Maale Adumim et Kfar Adumim, il faut mouiller sa chemise pour y parvenir: l’interdiction militaire d’y pénétrer oblige à un détour à pied dans le désert. Quelques minutes de marche sous un soleil tapant, et nous y voici. Signifiant «caravansérail rouge» en référence à l’auberge construite au 13e siècle sur le site du monastère de Saint-Euthyme, Khan al-Ahmar accueille quelque 200 Bédouins.

D’un exil à un autre

Des hommes et des femmes expulsés une fois de plus. La première évacuation forcée date de la naissance de l’État d’Israël en 1948: ils doivent quitter leurs terres de Tal Arad dans le désert du Néguev. Cette population qui a toujours vécu d’activités pastorales et agricoles en zones arides décide alors de se replier dans l’actuelle Cisjordanie. Elle y maintient ses traditions en vivant en petits groupes et dans des zones isolées riches en ressources naturelles.

La deuxième rupture survient au moment de l’occupation de la Cisjordanie par Israël après la guerre des Six Jours de 1967: l’espace vital des Bédouins diminue encore, miné par la construction des colonies et l’exclusion de certaines zones dédiées à l’armée ou classées réserves naturelles. Ainsi, Khan al Ahmar n’est ni le premier campement bédouin à devoir plier bagage, ni le seul. Actuellement, plusieurs clans sont dans le collimateur de l’administration israélienne, à la colère de nombreuses ONG dont certaines qualifient les déportations de «génocide culturel».

L’État palestinien en jeu

Cependant, le village a reçu une attention médiatique et un soutien inhabituels. Les Nations unies et plusieurs pays de l’Union européenne ont dit leur indignation, et les articles de presse à ce sujet sont innombrables, tout comme le nombre de militants locaux ou internationaux engagés jusqu’à présent dans la bataille. C’est que la destruction de Khan al Ahmar renforcerait l’encerclement de Jérusalem-Est par les colonies juives et achèverait de couper la ville sainte de la Cisjordanie, enterrant un peu plus encore le rêve palestinien d’un État avec Jérusalem comme capitale. Une fois Khan al-Ahmad démantelée, le gouvernement israélien pourrait continuer de créer des constructions qui couperont le nord du sud de la Cisjordanie.

Une école en péril

Ensuite, le village a pour lui un symbole fort: une école, financée par l’Italie, la Belgique et l’Union européenne. Construite en 2009 par l’ONG Terra di Vento, elle est la première à accueillir les enfants de la tribu Jahalin et des alentours. Soit 174 gamins qui autrement, devraient parcourir des distances considérables jusqu’à une salle de classe, voire être privés d’éducation.
L’année scolaire commencera ce dimanche 15 juillet, soit un jour avant le délai de réponse fixé par la Cour suprême israélienne à l’État face aux avocats des droits de l’homme qui s’opposent à l’expulsion. Malgré le soutien, notamment des autres tribus bédouines, ces derniers ne se font plus trop d’illusions.  Mercredi, une ambiance lourde régnait dans le village après qu’Israël ait informé la Cour que la destruction n’était qu’une question de jours. Sara et sa famille le savent: à Khan al-Ahmar, symbole de la vie bédouine, les gravats auront bientôt remplacé les cahiers et les tableaux noirs.

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