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  • 28 juin 2018 - 09:54
  • laurence villoz 3748 signes
Politique

Une pétition exige des voies sûres et légales pour les réfugiés

des migrants sur un bateau https://flic.kr/p/uGYxeoL’Entraide protestante suisse et l’Organisation suisse d’aide aux réfugiés ont déposé ce matin à Berne une pétition demandant des mesures légales et sécurisées pour les personnes qui fuient leur pays ainsi que l’augmentation du contingent à 10'000 migrants par année.

Photo: CC (by-nc-nd) Coast Guard News

Par Laurence Villoz

«Nous avons récolté plus de 38'000 signatures en quatre mois, cela montre que des personnes sont prêtes à s’engager», se réjouit Joëlle Herren Laufer, responsable médias à l’Entraide protestante suisse (EPER). Jeudi 28 juin, l’EPER et l’Organisation suisse d’aide aux réfugiés (OSAR) ont déposé à Berne une pétition pour améliorer les conditions des migrants. Le document demande, essentiellement, la création de voies sûres et légales pour les réfugiés, l’augmentation du contingent à 10'000 migrants par année en Suisse et l’établissement des bases légales pour renforcer les initiatives de la société civile et des Églises.

«Nous attendons surtout du Conseil fédéral qu’il augmente le contingent de réfugiés», souligne Joëlle Herren Laufer. «Actuellement, les gens qui ont vraiment besoin d’aide ne peuvent pas demander l’asile en Suisse. La plupart ont fui dans les pays limitrophes aux conflits et se retrouvent dans des situations de grande précarité, sans perspective ni de retour ni d’intégration. En augmentant le contingent, le Haut Commissariat des Nations unies pour les réfugiés (HCR) pourrait faire venir les plus démunis d’entre eux directement en Suisse leur évitant ainsi des voyages dangereux et traumatisants».

68,5 millions de migrants

Ces cinq dernières années, le contingent de prise en charge en collaboration avec le HCR était d’environ 1000 réfugiés par an. Selon les initiateurs de la pétition, les personnes avec un statut de réfugiés ou une admission provisoire représentent 1,4% de la population suisse. «Nous avons fait une simulation sur cinq ans. Si le contingent passe à 10'000, ce chiffre atteindrait à peine les 2%», précise Joëlle Herren Laufer. «Au vu des 68,5 millions de personnes contraintes à l’exil dans le monde, la Suisse a une responsabilité particulière fondée sur sa tradition humanitaire d’accorder sa protection à davantage de réfugiés qu’elle ne le fait actuellement», soulignent les initiateurs de la pétition.

Parallèlement, le nombre de demandes d’asile actuellement enregistré par la Suisse est inférieur à la moyenne de ces vingt dernières années. En 2017, 18’000 demandes ont été déposées, soit environ un tiers de moins que l’année précédente. «Depuis que l’Europe a fermé ses frontières et en raison des accords Dublin, c’est beaucoup plus compliqué pour les migrants d’y arriver, à moins de faire recours à des passeurs», ajoute Joëlle Herren Laufer. En 2016 et 2017, 8000 décès ont été enregistrés en Méditerranée.

Les couloirs humanitaires

Pour éviter, ce genre de décès, la Fédération des Églises protestantes d’Italie (FCEI), le Conseil des vaudois du Piémont et la Communauté Sant’Egidio ont mis en place, depuis plusieurs années, des couloirs humanitaires avec la collaboration de l’État. Ils permettent aux personnes en situation de vulnérabilité de fuir la guerre sans devoir faire recours à des passeurs et de risquer leur vie en mer. Saluée par le HCR, cette pratique s’est également développée en France et en Belgique. Ce modèle semble toutefois difficilement exportable en Suisse.

Lors d’une table ronde sur cette thématique, en avril 2017 à Lausanne, le conseiller national Carlo Sommaruga avait rappelé que le modèle italien n’était pour l’heure pas compatible avec la législation suisse: «La Suisse considère qu’une fois qu’ils ont quitté le territoire du pays dans lequel ils sont persécutés, les futurs requérants d’asile sont en sécurité. Les ambassades des pays voisins ne peuvent donc pas délivrer de visa humanitaire. Vous imaginez bien que pour un Syrien réfugié au Liban, il est impossible de retourner à Damas pour demander un visa humanitaire. D’ailleurs, l’ambassade suisse y est fermée.» La pétition demande donc de trouver une solution adaptée au droit suisse pour permettre aux migrants les plus précarisés d’être accueillis.

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