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  • 23 avril 2018 - 08:15
  • Joël Burri 3782 signes
Politique

Édifices religieux: l’exception genevoise

La cathédrale Saint Pierre CC(ba-sa) GFuerst via https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cathedrale_Saint_Pierre_Geneve.JPGLes Églises du bout du lac assument seules les coûts liés aux bâtiments religieux. Un fardeau! D’autant plus que les communautés sont limitées dans leurs possibilités de valoriser financièrement ces biens.

Photo: La cathédrale Saint Pierre CC(ba-sa) GFuerst

Par Joël Burri

L’entretien de la cathédrale Saint-Pierre coûte à l’Église protestante de Genève (EPG), l’équivalent de 10% de son budget. C’est l’une des informations lâchées lors de la conférence de presse des Églises historiques du canton avant le début de la deuxième lecture du projet de loi sur la laïcité au Grand Conseil. Lieux de culte, certes, mais aussi monuments historiques et attractions touristiques de premier ordre, faire peser sur les communautés religieuses l’entretien de ces édifices est une spécificité genevoise.

Dans le canton de Vaud, la majorité des églises appartiennent aux communes, et une quelques unes, dont la cathédrale de Lausanne ou l’abbatiale de Romainmôtier sont entre les mains du Canton. Même à Neuchâtel, souvent cité comme l’autre canton laïque du pays, la collégiale est entre les mains de la ville qui est tenue de l’entretenir. «La plupart des temples appartiennent aux communes, mais il y a quelques exceptions par exemple à La Chaux-de-Fonds où ils appartiennent à la paroisse», explique Christophe Brügger, responsable financier de l’Église évangélique réformée du canton de Neuchâtel. «L’Église doit toutefois prendre des assurances à sa charge», précise-t-il. «Même en France, pays pourtant très laïc, l’État participe à l’entretien des monuments», souligne Eric Vulliez, codirecteur de l’EPG, responsable des finances et de l’immobilier.

Autre spécificité genevoise, l’EPG, tout comme les Églises catholique chrétienne et catholique romaine du canton, ne peuvent, en principe, pas vendre leurs biens datant d’avant 1907, dits incamérés. Des dérogations doivent être demandées. Si la question est à nouveau discutée, c’est que le projet de loi sur la laïcité amendé en commission avant la deuxième lecture prévoit que le canton et les communes auraient alors un droit de préemption. «Ce ne serait pas une simple étape administrative. Avec ce genre de démarche, on peut faire fuir un acquéreur potentiel», dénonce Eric Vulliez. «Ce n’est pas comme lorsque vous vendez un appartement et que vous avez deux ou trois acquéreurs potentiels. Pour un bien aussi spécifique, vous êtes déjà heureux d’en avoir un.»

Pas de bars dans les temples genevois

Est-ce à dire que les Églises genevoises imaginent pouvoir vendre leurs édifices pour en faire des bars, comme cela s’est vu par exemple au Royaume-Uni? «Non pas du tout! La question est très sensible, cela froisserait certainement pas mal de monde que l’on transforme une Église en bar ou en boîte de nuit. Si nous devions nous en séparer à regret, nous espérons plutôt les vendre à d’autres Églises, par exemple des communautés issues de la migration.»

Mais une communauté religieuse va-t-elle vraiment se montrer intéressée par un bâtiment sans sanitaires ni cuisine? Cela ne correspond plus vraiment à une ecclésiologie moderne! «Les acquéreurs existent, à condition que le prix soit modeste», estime Eric Vulliez. «L’adaptation du lieu aux besoins d’aujourd’hui soulève un autre problème, celui de la protection du patrimoine. Les projets que nous avons dans le cadre de nos activités ecclésiales sont souvent bloqués, car les édifices figurent sur les listes des biens à l’inventaire ou celles des biens classés.»

Et cette question ne concerne pas que des bâtiments anciens, certaines constructions plus récentes sont des témoins d’un type de construction donné et sont protégés comme tels. La Tribune de Genève dévoilait ainsi récemment, les déboires de l’Église catholique romaine qui ne peut détruire un bâtiment de 1968, en état de vétusté avancé. «Nous avons un cas similaire à Châtelaine, sous les viaducs», signale Eric Vulliez. «La paroisse ne peut plus payer les 20’000 fr annuels de chauffage et nos différents projets pour valoriser le temple sont bloqués.»

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