×

Message

Failed loading XML...
Failed loading XML... Specification mandate value for attribute async attributes construct error Couldn't find end of Start Tag script line 1 Opening and ending tag mismatch: link line 1 and script Specification mandate value for attribute async attributes construct error Couldn't find end of Start Tag script line 1 Opening and ending tag mismatch: link line 1 and script Opening and ending tag mismatch: link line 1 and head Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1 and form Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 1 and nav Opening and ending tag mismatch: nav line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and header Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and a attributes construct error Couldn't find end of Start Tag a line 1 Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div attributes construct error Couldn't find end of Start Tag span line 1 Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and span Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a attributes construct error Couldn't find end of Start Tag a line 1 Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div attributes construct error Couldn't find end of Start Tag span line 1 Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and span Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a attributes construct error Couldn't find end of Start Tag a line 1 Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Entity 'nbsp' not defined Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Entity 'nbsp' not defined Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: img line 1 and picture Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: source line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: picture line 1 and a Opening and ending tag mismatch: a line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and main Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1 and form Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 1 and div Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and footer EntityRef: expecting ';' EntityRef: expecting ';' Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1 and body Opening and ending tag mismatch: footer line 1 and html Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag a line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag a line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag a line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag a line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag a line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag a line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag a line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag a line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag a line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag a line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag main line 1 Premature end of data in tag div line 1 Premature end of data in tag input line 1 Premature end of data in tag header line 1 Premature end of data in tag body line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag link line 1 Premature end of data in tag link line 1 Premature end of data in tag link line 1 Premature end of data in tag link line 1 Premature end of data in tag link line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag meta line 1 Premature end of data in tag head line 1 Premature end of data in tag html line 1
Failed loading XML... xmlParseEntityRef: no name xmlParseEntityRef: no name error parsing attribute name attributes construct error Couldn't find end of Start Tag n line 1 xmlParseEntityRef: no name xmlParseEntityRef: no name StartTag: invalid element name Opening and ending tag mismatch: link line 1 and head AttValue: " or ' expected attributes construct error Couldn't find end of Start Tag body line 1 Entity 'nbsp' not defined Opening and ending tag mismatch: h4 line 1 and h2 Opening and ending tag mismatch: h4 line 1 and h2 Opening and ending tag mismatch: h4 line 1 and h2 Opening and ending tag mismatch: h4 line 1 and h2 Opening and ending tag mismatch: meta line 1 and body Opening and ending tag mismatch: head line 1 and html Premature end of data in tag html line 1
  • 03 janvier 2017 - 09:30
  • Joël Burri 3372 signes
Théologie

Un document neuchâtelois provoque la fureur du roi de France

Série «L’imprimerie et la Réforme»

Placard contre la messe, capture d'écran, http://gallica.bnf.fr/Une attaque cinglante contre la messe et l’eucharistie est placardée dans l’entourage du roi de France, durant une nuit d’octobre 1534. Le texte a été écrit et rédigé à Neuchâtel. Mais cette démonstration de force des partisans des idées nouvelles provoque de lourdes répressions.

Par Joël Burri

«Dans la nuit du 17 octobre 1534, de petites affiches, des “placards” furent apposés en plusieurs endroits, à Paris et jusque sur la porte de la chambre de François Ier au château d’Amboise», relate l’Encyclopédie Universalis. «La légende veut même qu’un de ces placards soit tombés dans le thé du roi», complète en souriant l’historienne Geneviève Gross.

Sur ces affichettes était imprimée une attaque violente contre le culte catholique, eucharistie en particulier. Le document est titré: «Articles véritables sur les horribles, grands et insupportables abus de la messe papale, inventée directement contre la sainte cène de notre Seigneur, seul Médiateur et seul Sauveur Jésus Christ.»

François 1er aurait perçu cet évènement comme une attaque contre son autorité. Sa position vis-à-vis des réformateurs se serait dès lors endurcie. Il ordonna des persécutions. Six «hérétiques» sont condamnés au bûcher. Ce qui déplut aux princes allemands. On tenta dès lors de faire passer les suppliciés pour des révolutionnaires anabaptistes, bref des extrémistes. Et c’est pour contrer cette accusation que Calvin, réfugié à Genève, aurait décidé de publier son «Institution chrétienne»

«C’est un peu un moment charnière», insiste Geneviève Gross. «Jusqu’alors, le clergé tente de faire passer la Réforme comme une simple hérésie de plus, liées aux précédentes. Là, il apparaît que le mouvement est capable d’organiser une telle opération», explique la chercheuse à l’Institut d’histoire de la Réformation de l’Université de Genève.

Ces textes qui dénoncent la fausseté de la messe ont, en fait, été rédigés à Neuchâtel par le pasteur Antoine Marcourt et imprimés par Pierre de Vingle. Un imprimeur lyonnais, acquis aux idées nouvelles qui vint s’installer avec ses presses à Genève, puis à Serrières après avoir eu des démêlés avec la justice de son pays à la suite de la publication d’un Nouveau Testament en français. «Pierre de Vingle n’a exercé que trois ans à Neuchâtel», rappelle Geneviève Gross. «De 1533 à 1536. Après on perd sa trace. Il est sans doute mort», explique l’historienne. «Par leur fonction, les imprimeurs étaient une population très vite touchée par les idées nouvelles», souligne-t-elle.

Les historiens savent peu de choses sur l’organisation pratique de ce placardage simultané dans plusieurs villes (Paris, Blois, Orléans, Amboise,…) ni sur son impact sur a diffusion des idées nouvelles. «Bien sûr que cette action visait avant tout le roi», souligne Geneviève Gross. «Mais ces documents, un peu plus grands que notre format A4 étaient très mobiles. Je m’imagine volontiers que des passants les ont emportés. Qu’ils ont été lus en groupe. On risquait gros à se promener avec une telle affichette sur soi, mais cela reste quelque chose de facile à dissimuler.» Pour l’historienne, «les réformateurs ont très vite saisi l’importance de l’imprimé pour suppléer au manque de prédicateurs et amplifier leur présence.»

« Retour
© 2018 Protestinfo