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  • 30 décembre 2016 - 08:15
  • laurence villoz 3146 signes
Culture

La Suisse, un refuge face à la censure

Série «L’imprimerie et la Réforme»

La censure https://flic.kr/p/62x5UcAlors que la censure s’intensifie avec le développement de l’imprimerie, différentes méthodes permettent de tricher, de dissimuler et de contourner l’interdit pour continuer de transmettre divers courants de pensée.

Photo: CC (by-sa) Jean-François Gornet

Par Laurence Villoz

«La censure est inhérente à la naissance de l’imprimerie. Même si elle s’appliquait déjà aux écrits manuscrits, elle touche essentiellement les imprimés et les images», explique Guillaume Poisson, collaborateur scientifique à l’Institut Benjamin Constant de l’Université de Lausanne. «Au début, l’imprimerie a suivi deux branches: théologique et politique. La censure devient tout de suite liée à ces deux thématiques. A la fois, les gouvernants laïcs et ecclésiastiques veulent contrôler les imprimés pour ne pas attaquer leur propre régime et l’Eglise du lieu est là pour évaluer les bonnes mœurs et la bonne doctrine des publications», ajoute l’historien.

Du côté du religieux, il y a différentes formes de censure. «Celle de l’Eglise catholique, de la papauté, un pouvoir lointain qui légifère sur toute la chrétienté. Au niveau local, en France au XVIe siècle, la faculté de théologie de la Sorbonne avec ses théologiens veille sur la bonne doctrine des imprimés. En Suisse, la situation est différente. Dans la république de Berne dont dépend le pays de Vaud, les Censeurs de la République et le Collège des pasteurs surveillent les publications et les valident au préalable chez l’imprimeur. Ce même fonctionnement s’applique à Zurich, à Genève et à Bâle. Le rapport à la censure, dans les cantons protestants, est très contrasté pendant l'époque moderne. Très fermes dans les premières décennies du XVIe, les censeurs – les pasteurs majoritairement des intellectuels progressistes – sont plus souples dès la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle.»

Contourner la censure

Toutefois, si un grand nombre d’ouvrages sont proscrits dans certains endroits, ils continuent d’être imprimés, et cela grâce à deux moyens. «De tout temps, il y a eu les fausses adresses, c’est-à-dire qu’on poursuit l’impression du livre dans le pays où il a été interdit en mettant une fausse adresse. Par exemple, on imprime le texte à Paris, mais les éditeurs mettent Londres comme lieu de publication pour masquer l’atelier où il a été produit. L’autre moyen de contourner la censure consiste à imprimer l’ouvrage sur une terre non hostile à ce texte. Notamment dans des villes comme Bâle ou Neuchâtel qui sont proches des frontières», souligne le spécialiste.

«De plus, il faut se rappeler qu’entre le XVe et le XVIIIe siècle, les ouvrages étaient vendus sous forme de pages». A cette époque, les livres s’achetaient donc par feuillets non coupés et non reliés. Et le client choisissait une reliure en fonction de ses moyens. «Ainsi, on peut tricher, en cachant et intercalant d’autres feuilles dans le lot. Il y a évidemment des descentes dans les imprimeries, mais en théorie c’est surtout la censure préalable qui est appliquée», ajoute Guillaume Poisson.

Stimulation entre protestants et catholiques

Et alors que la plupart des pays européens évoluent avec une religion largement dominante, donc avec une censure écrasante, la Suisse bénéficie de l’orientation religieuse de chaque canton. «Il y a eu, chose très rare, une mutuelle motivation entre protestants et catholiques. La compétition entre les deux confessions a engendré une réelle stimulation. Alors que les protestants ont beaucoup influencé l’apprentissage de la lecture notamment chez les jeunes, les cantons catholiques ont très vite récupéré leur retard en créant d’excellentes écoles», explique l’historien. D’ailleurs, comme le souligne le Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse, à partir du XVIIe siècle, les gouvernements protestants et catholiques s’aident mutuellement à combattre les écrits diffamatoires.

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