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  • 29 mars 2016 - 08:15
  • Emmanuelle Jacquat 5831 signes
Eglises

L’Eglise libre dévoilée par Jean-Pierre Bastian

Jean-Pierre Bastian DRLa Fondation des Terreaux a mandaté Jean-Pierre Bastian, professeur émérite de sociologie des religions de l’Université de Strasbourg pour rédiger une plaquette autour de l’édifice de la «Môme», c’est-à-dire le bâtiment des Cèdres, qui abritait autrefois la faculté de théologie de l’Eglise libre. Finalement, c’est tout un livre sur l’Eglise libre qui en a résulté.

Propos recueillis par Emmanuelle Jacquat

L’Eglise libre, qui ne voulait pas être sous l’emprise de l’Etat, a marqué la société vaudoise, tant sur le plan religieux qu’intellectuel et social, de sa création en 1847 jusqu’à la fusion avec l’Eglise nationale en 1966. Le livre du professeur émérite de sociologie des religions de l’Université de Strasbourg, Jean-Pierre Bastian, «La fracture religieuse vaudoise, 1847-1966», revient sur une page de l’histoire vaudoise, peu connue, où les enjeux modernes de la laïcité de l’Etat se posaient déjà au XIXe siècle. Interview.

Qui étaient principalement les libristes?

Une bonne partie des membres provenaient de la bourgeoisie commerciale et intellectuelle du canton, articulés à un «petit peuple» de régénérés spirituellement parlant. Les membres de cette bourgeoisie participaient de la mouvance politique libérale, qui s’opposa en 1845 à la mouvance radicale et démocratique. Cette bourgeoisie était liée au parti alors appelé conservateur, qu’on ne tarda pas à appeler le parti libéral. Et ces familles, tout comme les pasteurs qui se sont séparés de l’Eglise nationale, défendaient la séparation entre l’Eglise et l’Etat, ce que les radicaux refusaient. C’est pourquoi de manière naturelle, l’Eglise libre s’est constituée autour de ce noyau de familles de la bonne bourgeoisie urbaine de Lausanne, Nyon, Morges, Vevey, entre autres.

 

Mais si les libristes étaient politiquement conservateurs, l’idée de séparation Eglise-Etat semble être une idée plutôt moderne…

Cette Eglise était progressiste et moderne dans sa conception de la séparation entre l’Eglise et Etat et sa conception ecclésiologique selon laquelle l’Eglise repose sur ses membres laïcs.

Dans cette Eglise, on a eu dès le départ cet équilibre très moderne de la participation des laïcs au côté des pasteurs dans la gestion des communautés. C’était fondamental, car l’Eglise libre ne vivait que des dons de ses membres, et pas de l’aide de l’Etat.

 

Une autre conception progressiste des libristes était la place des femmes et leur éducation…

Absolument. A partir de 1920, les premières femmes théologiennes sont apparues au sein de la faculté de l’Eglise libre. La première femme pasteure vaudoise a été en 1935 la libriste, Lydia von Auw. Elle a aussi été la première femme docteure en théologie du canton. Son doctorat, elle l’a obtenu en 1949 à l’Université de Lausanne, et pas à la faculté de l’Eglise libre, qui n’offrait pas ce niveau d’études.

L’éducation féminine s’est également manifestée en dehors de la faculté libre avec l’école Vinet à Lausanne et par la volonté d’une bourgeoisie cultivée et éduquée qui voulaient que ses filles aient accès à une certaine formation culturelle. L’école Vinet a été l’instrument de mise en place d’une politique éducative pour les filles, libristes en particulier, avec des enseignantes qui sont pour la plupart devenues des personnalités dans le canton, comme la pacifiste Hélène Monastier, ou Lucy Dutoit, membre fondatrice de l’Association suisse pour le suffrage féminin (1909). Ces libristes féministes étaient souvent célibataires. Mais, par exemple, Emma Rod-Ducloux et la doctoresse Charlotte Olivier-von Mayer étaient mariées. Si les célibataires libristes nourrissaient les avant-gardes des féministes, c’est aussi parce que les autres femmes libristes mariées se consacraient fondamentalement à reproduire le milieu, à faire des enfants et à servir la famille.

 

Dans votre livre, on peut voir que la Môme, la faculté de l’Eglise libre, jouait un rôle essentiel pour les libristes.

En effet, elle a été au cœur du dispositif libriste parce que dès le départ l’Eglise libre n’a pas été une secte, mais une Eglise territoriale qui prétendait entrer en dialogue avec la culture, les sciences, le politique, et aussi avec les grandes tendances théologiques. Et dès le synode constituant de 1847, la discussion a tourné autour de la mise en place d’une faculté de théologie. La formation théologique de l’Eglise libre était de la même qualité que celle de l’Académie. La faculté a eu très tôt une renommée internationale, surtout à partir de 1864, quand son bâtiment fut construit. En plus des Vaudois, des jeunes venant de France, des vallées vaudoises du Piémont, de Belgique ou d’Espagne sont venus étudier à la Môme. Ils étaient tous issus d’Eglises indépendantes, qui partageaient la même visée de séparation Eglise-Etat.

Mais surtout, le cœur de la faculté était la bibliothèque, qui s’est constituée petit à petit par des dons, dont ceux de la veuve d’Alexandre Vinet. Cette bibliothèque a atteint plus de nonante mille volumes au moment de la fusion en 1966. C’était la plus grande bibliothèque théologique du canton, et la plus belle. Elle existe encore, mais elle est enterrée dans un abri antiatomique du côté de Lucens…

 

On peut lire également que déjà vers 1913, certaines voix libriste pensaient que la faculté ne préparait pas les pasteurs pour leur futur ministère. Comment expliquez-vous ces critiques?

On voit très bien que le milieu libriste est un milieu en tension. Mais il n’y aura jamais de scission. C’est un milieu qui est demeuré homogène. Mais les remarques venaient surtout des membres issus de communautés touchées par le premier réveil, qui voulaient des pasteurs évangéliques et pas des pasteurs réflexifs ou trop intellectuels, trop formés théologiquement. C’est une tension structurante que l’on retrouve aujourd’hui. Cela fait partie de conceptions divergentes quant au rapport de la théologie aux sociabilités religieuses.

 


La fracture religieuse vaudoise 1847–1966

L’Eglise libre, «la Môme» et le canton de Vaud

Par Bastian Jean-Pierre, éditions Labor et Fides
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