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  • 30 juin 2010 - 09:27
  • Tania Buri 5921 signes
Formation

Caux Initiatives et Changement: une ONG qui poursuit sa mue

caux_palace1
Le Palace de Caux où se tiennent les conférences d'été DR

Caux Initiatives et Changement s'appelait Réarmement moral jusqu'il y a peu. Si cette organisation créée entre les deux guerres mondiales a rassemblé de nombreux leaders du monde politique et économique sur les hauts de Montreux, on la connaît moins aujourd'hui. L'avocat d'affaires Jean-Pierre Méan vient de remplacer Cornelio Sommaruga, l'ancien directeur du CICR, à la tête de l'ONG. Il est également responsable de Transparency Suisse, une organisation qui lutte contre la corruption. Interview quelques jours avant le rendez-vous estival de Caux, qui débute vendredi.

ProtestInfo: Spécialiste en éthique des affaires, pourquoi avez-vous choisi l'ONG Caux Initiative & Changements plutôt qu'une autre?


JPM: Les codes de conduite, c'est très bien! Mais imposer des règles de conduite, cela ne marche pas! Les acteurs concernés doivent décider personnellement de changer leur attitude. C'est comme s'ils devaient reprogrammer leur disque dur pour qu'ils soient convaincus en leur for intérieur que cette décision est la bonne, même si leurs concurrents continuent de payer des pots-de vin. Je vous donne un exemple. A Bangalore en Inde, des jeunes femmes qui venaient d'accoucher devaient payer le personnel de l'hôpital pour qu'elles puissent voir leur enfant! Changer, c'est décider qu'on ne veut pas d'un monde comme cela! Et ce type d'attitude est dans la ligne de Caux, qui considère que changer le monde passe aussi par un changement personnel.


P: Caux Initiatives et Changements a-t-il un rapport avec le Réarmement moral?

JPM: Je suis allé à Caux pour la première fois quand j'avais 18-20 ans au début des années 60. Le message de l'époque, tel que je l’ai compris, consistait surtout à mobiliser les valeurs chrétiennes contre le communisme. Un grand effort était mené auprès des élites des pays du tiers-monde pour qu'ils n'adhèrent pas au communisme au moment de leur indépendance. Cette démarche ne m'a pas intéressé. J'y suis revenu en 2003 pour donner une conférence. J'ai découvert une organisation, qui avait changé, qui n'était plus étroitement chrétienne, protestante et conservatrice.

Caux a pris le virage dans les années 80 avec Cornelio Sommaruga. Elle s'est par exemple ouverte aux autres religions. M. Cornelio Sommaruga est catholique, M. Mohamed Sahnoun est  musulman, et M. Rajmohan Ghandi est le petit-fils de l'apôtre de la non-violence. Ils ont tous trois présidé le mouvement international d’Initiatives et Changement. 

P: Si vous deviez parler de Caux à un jeune, qui ne connaît pas cette ONG, quelles valeurs mettriez-vous en avant?

JPM: La paix, l'éthique dans les affaires, l'environnement, la réconciliation, la sécurité humaine et la compréhension multiculturelle. A côté des conférences d'été à Caux, l'ONG est active via des programmes spécifiques sur les différents continents. Les membres des sociétés nationales paient des cotisations et les sociétés nationales paient une cotisation au mouvement international. Les sociétés nationales reçoivent aussi des subventions des pouvoirs publics pour des programmes précis sur le terrain. La fondation suisse n’a elle pas de membres et fonctionne essentiellement grâce à des dons ou des legs.

P: Caux s'adresse-t-elle aux élites?

JPM: Moins maintenant qu'auparavant. Aujourd'hui, on ne reçoit pas seulement le grand patron de l'UBS, mais aussi ceux de PME.

P: Comment jugez-vous la croissance des inégalités et les dérapages récents du système économique ?

JPM: Ce qui se passe dans le monde des affaires depuis 10 à 20 ans est aberrant. Dans les transactions financières actuelles, moins de 5% d'entre elles concernent un échange de marchandises ou de services. Toutes les autres transactions ont un caractère purement financier et souvent spéculatif. Cela n'a plus rien à voir avec l'économie réelle.

La crise que nous traversons est systémique. Avec les politiques prises pour éviter le crash, nous sommes simplement passés d'un endettement privé à un endettement des Etats. Et cerise sur le gâteau, ce ne sont pas les pays ou les personnes les plus pauvres qui sont les plus endettés, mais au contraire les plus riches.
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BIO

P: Vous avez été avocat d'affaires, la corruption est-il un facteur en hausse ou en baisse ces dernières années?

JPM: « Je m'occupe de corruption depuis l'introduction de la loi en 1977 aux Etat-Unis interdisant la corruption des fonctionnaires étrangers. Auparavant, les pays poursuivaient uniquement leurs propres fonctionnaires. Avec cette loi, vous pouvez également poursuivre les fonctionnaires d’un autre état. Cette législation est importante, car dans les pays émergents il y avait jusque-là peu de chances que ces derniers lancent des poursuites contre leurs ressortissants bénéficiant de pots-de-vin.

J'ai travaillé plus tard à la Société générale de surveillance (SGS) à Genève. Cette société a été impliquée dans un scandale avec le Pakistan à la fin des années 90. Il n'y a pas eu de procès contre la SGS, mais les dommages à la réputation ont été importants. Pour éviter que ce cas ne se reproduise, j'ai été chargé d'élaborer un code de conduite. J'ai ensuite donné de nombreuses conférences sur ce sujet car les entreprises ont voulu se doter à grande échelle de codes de conduite.

Une législation semblable à la législation américaine n’a été appliquée en Europe que depuis le début des années 2000. Une des sociétés qui a tout récemment fait les frais de la nouvelle législation a été Siemens, accusée d'avoir versé des pots-de-vin tous azimuts. Cette entreprise a été condamnée à verser des amendes totalisant un million d'euros et a encouru un autre million en frais d'avocats et autres.

P: Mais la corruption a-t-elle diminué avec l'introduction de cette nouvelle législation et des codes de conduite?

JPM: Certaines entreprises ont réformé leurs pratiques. Mais globalement, ce n'est pas sûr que la corruption ait baissé. Les pays émergents usent largement de pots-de-vin comme la Chine et l'Inde en Afrique et la Russie est un pays extrêmement corrompu. En Europe, les anciens pays du bloc de l'Est ainsi que l'Italie sont aussi concernés, selon les critères de Transparency.  Alors depuis la chute du communisme, oui, globalement, la corruption est en hausse.

INFOS

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